Tuesday, September 1, 2009


Watch Serials online..

1) B.R Chopra's - Mahabharat (English Subtitles)


2) Ramananda Sagar's - Ramayan ( New)


3) Ravan


Management Bible

Mahabharat - The Oldest Management Bible

By Hiten Kataria
Welingkar Institute of Management
The Mahabharat, the longest epic in the world, is about couple of million words in total. Its not just the length of the epic that makes it grand and superior, but also the quality, reach and teachings it consists. The Mahabharat’s scope is best summarized by one quotation: “What is found here, may be found elsewhere. What is not found here, will not be found elsewhere”. Mahabharat is not plainly the story of a war or a source of wisdom for philosophers. It exposes the secrets of leadership and the path to success. Mahabharat can be considered equivalent to other management bibles. Whether it is man management, human/organisational behaviour, game theory, management by objectives, all aspects of modern management can be discovered in various characters and episodes of the great epic. Bhishma, an honest manager caught in diametrically opposed clashes, who was forced to take wrong decisions by forces beyond his power. Yudhisthira is a flawless example of managerial acumen. Karna, a manager who fought his way up the ladder but could not keep up with the
pressure and tensions and met a tragic end. Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, a aredevil leader without a business-plan of escape. He fought his way into the chakravyuha, but failed to come out and was brutally cornered and killed by Drona and others. Draupadi is the typical model of a woman powerhouse who kept others motivated till the goal is achieved. And Lord Krishna is the ideal example of a leader-manager who kept his eye on the target till the desired outcome was achieved.

In today’s modern management when ethical judgment and importance of recognizing the ethical
dimensions is talked about, Mahabharat gives an excellent analogies to identify the ethical
boundaries. "Rules of ethical conduct", dharmayuddha, for the war were framed by the supreme
commanders of each side. Both sides broke most of these laws at least once.
Lord Krishna himself advised the Pandavas that no action can be perfect in an ever-changing
dynamic world and hence he casually advocated them to keep the overall ethical standards in view
and then act according to the contingency which may require provisional deviation from strict
For example, Krishna prevails upon Yudhisthira, an honest king, to lie or convey a “half-truth” to
psychologically depress Dronacharya. From the complete moralistic standpoint, such a lie may be
considered unethical. But as long as such lies contributed to a desirable final outcome - it was
acceptable. So the greatest challenge for the modern corporate leader is the modification of these
responses keeping in mind the ethical and legal issues but without compromising corporate
The Mahabharat war was gigantic. The stakes were very great, the whole of the land of Bharat was
at stake, and every kingdom from the biggest to the smallest brought its armies to either the
Pandava or Kaurava side. Every king and army from all over India stood on that battlefield. That one
war changed the whole political landscape of India.
This can be simplest example to explain the importance of building a network of relationships and
developing a web of influence. If there is a single lesson from the war, it is that competitors must
try to find areas of alliance wherever is possible, group their resources for research and
development and offer innovative solutions for customer's money.

Today leaders often lack decision-making power. For example, while preparing for battle,
Duryodhana chose Krishna's large army while Arjuna selected Krishna's wisdom instead of just the
army. In the end, Arjuna emerged as the winner as he had made the right choice after having
weighed all the options carefully.
The great Indian epic is a big storehouse of stories. There are stories inside a story. Each story in
itself is the source of knowledge and new learning in various fields of human life esp. management.
One such episode is the story of Yaksha’s (Dharma’s) questions to Yudhisthira (Dharmaraja): The
story in brief is; In the forest, the Pandavas plan their 13th year of exile to live in disguise and to
work in another kingdom. Nakul tries to fetch water from a lake but is told not to use the water by
an invisible voice. He ignores the warning, drinks the water and falls down dead. His brothers meet
the same fate except for Yudhisthira answers correctly. The Yaksha reveals himself as Lord Yama
and grants back the lives of all the dead brothers.
The general management concepts that are portrayed in this particular episode are quite a many.
Remembering one’s prime duty no matter what situation one is in (Helping the Brahmin – duty of
the Kshatriya), Never underestimate your competitors (Pandavas not heeding to the warning –
underestimating the crane), Always learn the rules and meet the terms before entering new game
(Answering the questions of Yaksha – respecting the crane in his area of superiority), Being smart
thinker, wise and thought leader (Each answer to Yaksha’s question – wisdom and intelligence),
Making just decisions without any bias (Choosing Nakul’s life before – Having the right character for
Everything about the Mahabharat is huge, from its extensive length, to the enormous breadth of its
vision. The longest of all epics is like an encyclopedia, a world all on its own.

Leadership lesson from Mahabharata

Leadership lesson from Mahabharata

The Indian Value System Inherited and influenced by our ancient civilisation, Which is rich and vibrant can be successfully applied in the modern days

The evolution of mankind thousands of years ago led to organising them into a disciplined force capable of achieving anything. The complexities of leadership has its genesis in men being different from each other in terms of skills, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour representing different needs, ambitions and value systems. The concept of leadership therefore evolved from time immemorial.

In the Indian context, we have inherited a value system influenced by our ancient civilisation and an extremely rich and vibrant culture and applied those value systems successfully in the modern world. Today, as new breeds of Indian MNC’s evolve and dominate the global economy from as diverse industries as IT and Steel, the Indian leadership styles and business acumen is envied worldwide.

Mahabharata is an epic of historic, cultural and religious importance.

A careful study of this great epic teaches us important lessons from the perspective of leadership too. Lord Krishna is an avatar (reincarnation) of Lord Vishnu and is a highly popular and respected deity synonymous with great intelligence, communication skills and love and affection capable of resolving any crisis faced by his devotees.

Speaking in modern parlance, Lord Krishna can be best described as ‘The greatest crisis Manager’ the world has ever seen.

In the entire Mahabharata which has epical magnitude, there are many diverse characters impressing us with their responses in the midst of great challenges. However, Lord Krishna as a central character time and again comes across as a master strategist and tactful leader adopting different leadership styles according to situation and people he had to deal with. Let us look at some well known anecdotes to illustrate this point.

1. The story is about the fight between Bheema and Jarasandha in the presence of Lord Krishna and Arjuna.
Jarasandha picks Bheema as one worthy to fight. Bheema and Jarasandha fight for days, matching each other.
Every time Bheema kills Jarasandha, miraculously, Jarasandha’s body rejoins. Bheema realising that Jarasandha was more than an equal match, looks up to Lord Krishna for direction. Lord Krishna, who knew the story of Jarasandha’s birth, picks up a stick, breaking it in two halves and throws the two halves far away from each other and in opposite directions.

Bheema understands and throws Jarasandha to the ground, and splits his body in two. He then throws the two halves of Jarasandha’s body far away from each other in opposite directions killing him. While Bheema is credited with superhuman strength unmatched by any of his brothers, he is known to be sensitive, short tempered with a huge appetite. Lord Krishna appropriately uses authoritative style of leadership in this instance.

2. Similarly, in the Kurukshetra war with Kauravas, Lord Krishna takes the reins as Arjuna’s charioteer.

On seeing a reluctant Arjuna unwilling to fight and destroy his own relatives in the war, Lord Krishna advices Arjuna in the nature of a discourse called Bhagavad-Gita about the responsibilities of a soldier and the finer and broader aspects of human life.

Arjuna was a sensitive but extremely thoughtful, righteous person with a great sense of duty. Here the tactful Krishna understanding Arjuna’s personality uses directive style of leadership effectively persuading Arjuna to begin the Great War.

3. Lord Krishna being a great supporter of Pandavas does not spare even Bhishma and manages to find a way to tackle the veteran general of the Kauravas who had led the war for the first nine days causing extensive damage to the army of the Pandavas.

great warrior, as strong as steel in character, symbolic of truth and duty and extremely human. He was invincible and blessed to choose the manner and time of his death.

Lord Krishna takes Yudhisthira to Bhishma seeking the secret of becoming victorious in the war. Bhishma, knowing that Pandavas truly deserved to win the battle, tells Yudhisthira the secret of overcoming him as a prelude to winning the war. Bhishma thus confronted by Shikandi on the tenth day of the war refuses to consider him as a man and throws down his bow and arrows choosing not to fight.

Lord Krishna thus uses an influencing style of leadership and tackles Bhishma by making him the general of the enemy front as an ally by a tacit understanding using subtle diplomacy.

4. Yudhisthira, the eldest of the Pandavas, was the very embodiment of Satya (truth) and Dharma (righteousness). When Kaurava’s guru and general Drona was leading the battle, tactful Lord Krishna uses Yudhisthira cleverly. Drona was unconquerable and was devastating the army of the Pandavas.

Lord Krishna realises that the only way to rid Drona was by exploiting his weakness for his son-Ashwatthaama. In the midst of all the think-tank of the Pandavas, Lord Krishna says that the only way to kill Drona is to convey to him that his son Ashwatthaama is dead. Understanding that Drona can only believe this story, if Yudhisthira says it, everyone look at Yudhisthira to take up the responsibility. Yudhisthira accepts the responsibility finally and says ‘Ashwatthaama hathaha’ (Ashwatthaama dead…) but his personality remains somewhat unblemished by clever manipulation of Lord Krishna by getting an elephant called Ashwatthaama killed and the word elephant getting lost and unheard in the din of the battle.

A disheartened Drona gives up the weapons and dies soon in the battle. Lord Krishna thus achieves the objective of eliminating Drona by using a participative leadership style to prepare Yudhisthira to accept the responsibility of telling a half truth.

5. At another decisive point in the same war, Karna is fighting against Arjuna and the chariot of Karna sinks in the sludge of the battle field. When Karna reminds Arjuna that it’s not Dharma to take advantage of the situation, Lord Krishna taunts Karna by asking where his Dharma was when Draupadi was dragged into an open court and humiliated or when Yudhisthira was deceived in a foul play of dices or when Pandavas weren’t handed over the kingdom even after the exile was duly completed? He thus influences the mind of Arjuna and then literally orders Arjuna not to waste time, take out his arrow and kill the evil enemy. In this scenario, Lord Krishna uses authoritative leadership style, literally ordering a wavering and shaky Arjuna to act.

6. As a true leader, Lord Krishna similarly manages Duryodhana. Lord Krishna learns that Gandhaari planned to use the magical powers of her eyes blindfolded for long and energise Duryodhana’s body making him invincible from any attack.

He meets a completely nude Duryodhana on way to meet his mother and mocks at him to at least cover his groin. Lord Krishna thus cleverly prompts Duryodhana to cover his groin and when Gandhaari opens her eyes; his body is energised and made invincible everywhere except his thighs and groin. Lord Krishna thus influences (Leadership by attraction) Duryodhana and makes him vulnerable.

Later in the fight, Lord Krishna reminds Bheema of his oath to split Duryodhana’s thighs and thus ordering (authoritative leadership) him to strike. Bheema hits Duryodhana with a mace in the thighs and kills him eventually.

Lord Krishna changed his leadership style according to the situation recognising the people and their potential. He clearly knew what appealed to whom and how to get work done. He was the one who identified Ashwatthaama as Drona’s weakness as well as the fact that Bhishma always wanted to be on the side of ‘dharma’ and was caught between ‘dharma’ and ‘duty’.

Equally outstanding are the ways in which he handled men like Duryodhana and Karna at very crucial points in Mahabharata. He effectively used different leadership styles such as authoritative, directive, participative or even attractive styles of leadership, changing sometimes as a chameleon but always safeguarding ‘dharma’ and always working towards what is ‘right’.

Most importantly, being the people oriented leader that he was, he guided and facilitated people to perform or achieve their goals. Imagine Mahabharata for a while without Lord Krishna and then we realise the vacuum in the absence of leaders.

Lord Krishna was thus a great pragmatic and clever leader, using the resources of men and material most efficiently and proactively. A leader in corporate world attempts to do exactly the same, as increasingly, businesses are getting more people oriented. Therefore there is great potential and opportunity to gain wisdom by drawing examples from our great epics and use them as our guiding philosophy in the corporate world as well as in our day to day life While facing short term and long term challenges, a leader is continuously working towards influencing people, making powerful allies and neutralising competitors. A corporate leader is a visionary working towards the well being of all stakeholders while being on a righteous path (the dharma)


mahabharat in brief

mahabharat in brief

Birth of Devavrat
Shantanu of the Kuru dynasty, a decendant of Bharat rules Kuru region from
with Ganga. Ganga marries him on the condition that he will not question any
Shantanu & Ganga. Ganga drowns them all in the river. When the 8 son De
from drowning him. Ganga then leaves Shantanu for her heavenly abode.

Vyas is born to Satyavati & Parashar.
Satyavati works with her father as a boatman. One day Sage Parashar comes as a passenger. He falls in love with
the beauty. Satyavati gives birth to a son on an island in river Yamuna. This child is called Dwaypayan (one born
on a dweep) or Vyas.

Devavrat gains title Bheeshma
Shantanu marries Satyavati. Satyavati's father puts a condition that Satyavati's son shall be the king of Hastinapur.
Devavrat (now about 20 years old), relieves his father by taking an oath that he will never become the king of
Hastinapur, he will also stay a bachelor, so that no progeny of his will claim the throne of Hastinapur. Devavrat
earns the title Bheeshma. Vichitravirya and Chitrangad are born to Satyavati. Shantanu dies after the birth of the
two sons. Chitrangad is killed in a battle with Gandharvas.

Amba vows to kill Bheeshma in next birth

Bhishma captures the daughters of Kashiraj: Amba, Ambalika and Ambika. Ambika and Ambalika marry
Amba returns to her lover, King Shalwa. He refuses to accept her, as she had been captured by Bhishma. Amba
returns to Bhishma and asks him to marry her. Bhishma declines. Amba gets help from Sage Parshuram, and
asks him to kill Bhishma. Bhishma defeats Parashuram. Sage Parashuram, asks Amba to forget the idea of trying
to take revenge on Bhishma. Angered, insultated and hurt, Amba commits sucide, vowing to kill Bheeshma in
her next birth.

Birth of Dhruturashtra & Pandu:
Vichitravirya dies soon after his marriage. Bhishma becomes the caretaker of the state. Queen Satyavati, invites
her son Sage Vyas to continue the Kuru dynasty. Dhruturashtra is born to Ambika. Pandu is born to Ambalica.Vidur is born to a dasi. Though Dhruturashtra is eldest, since he is born blind, Pandu becomes the crown

Birth of Karna:
Yadav dynasty was established by King Yadu, son of King Yayati. The Yadav King Surasena's daughter Prutha,
was adopted by his cousin, King Kuntibhoj. She came to be known as Kunti.
Kunti secretly gives birth to a baby boy: Karna. She leaves him in a river. He is found and brought up by a
charioteer Adhirath and his wife Radha.

Marriages of Pandu and Dthruturashtra:
King Pandu marries Kunti. Dhruturashtra marries Gandhari the princess of Gandhar. Pandu goes for a Digvijay.
Returns with another wife: Madri, the princess of Mardadesh.
Pandu mistakely kills a Sage in the disguise of a deer. He is doomed to death if he were to touch a woman.
Pandu handovers the state affairs to Dhruturashtra and leaves for Himalayas with Kunti & Madri.

Vasudev under arrest:
Surasena's son Vasudev (Kunti's brother) marries Devaki. (Daughter of Ugrasen, king of Mathura). After this
marriage, Kans (Ugrasen's son), puts Ugrasen, Vasudev & Devaki under house arrest. Kans becomes the king of
Mathura.Vasudev sends his first wife Rohini, to Gokul, to live with his brother Nanda. In the following 8 years, Kans kills
6 infant sons born to Devaki. Rohini visits Vasudev from time to time. During these 8 years, Rohini has one
son, named Balaram.

Birth of Shikhandi
Shikhandi is born to King Drupad. Shikhandi is the second birth of Amba of Kashi.

Birth of Pandav & Kaurav:
Dharma, Bheema, and Arjun are born to Kunti. Nakul and Sahadev are born to Madri. They are born within
one year of each other. The 5 brothers are called Pandav.
100 sons (Duryodhan, Dushasan, Karna, Vikarana, etc.) and a daughter Dusheela are born from the same
embryo to Gandhari. Duryodhan is born one day after Bheema. The rest are born in the following 100 days.
The 100 brothers are called Kaurava.
Satyavati, Ambika and Ambalika accept Vanprasthashram.

Birth of Krishna:
8 son Krishna, is born to Vasudev & Devaki. (About a year after Dharma is born). Vasudev with help from
some gaurds, takes the infant to Gokul. Nanda exchanges his newly born daughter with Krishna. (Hoping that
Kans will not kill a girl.) Vasudev returns to Mathura with the baby daughter. Kans kills the baby girl too.
Nanda and Yashoda (both know that Krishna is Vasudev-Devaki's son) take care of the child. Krishna lives a
simple life in Gokul. He is loved dearly by the people of this small village.
Somehow Kans comes to know that Krishna is Vasudev-Devaki's son. He makes many attempts on Krishna's life.

Pandava enter Hastinapur:
Pandu dies. Madri commits Sati. Kunti returns to Hastinapur with her 5 sons.

Drona insultated:
Dronaacharya is in a poor state. To support his wife Krupi and son Ashwathama he decides to get help from
Drupad. His childhood friend, and now the king of Panchal. King Drupad declines to recognize Drona and
insults the Sage. Drona decides to avenge his insult with the help of his disciples. In search of good pupils, he
comes to Hastinapur to Krupachrya (minister with Dhruturashtra, and Krupi's brother).

Krishna slays Kans
The 8 year old Krishna kills Kans. (This is something amazing. How does he do this at such a young age?)
Krishna installs Ugrasen back on the throne of Mathura. Releases his parents Vasudev & Devaki from arrest.
Angered by Kans's death, Jarasandha (Kans's father-in-law) attacks Mathura 17 times. Each time he is defeated.
Due to these attacks, Krishna moves the capital from Mathura to Dwarika.
After this Krishna & Balaram go to the ashram of Sage Saandipani for education.

Education of Kaurav & Pandav
Bheeshma arranges for the education of Kauravas and Pandavas. Dronacharya is called upon to teach the
children. Along with Kaurav & Pandav, Drona's son Ashwathama also studies. Due to his love for his son,
Drona teaches some weapons, only to his son. Drona also loves Arjun, and to see that no one becomes better
that Arjun, he asks Ekalavya for his right hand thumb. Kaurav & Pandav complete their education in 12 years.
During this time Kaurav try to kill Bheema twice.

Karna: The King of Anga
Kaurav & Pandav complete their education. Dharma is now about 25 years old. Karna is 16 years older than
Dharma. Arjun and all Kaurav are 21 years old. In a compitition, Karna challenges Arjun to a duet. This
challenge is made void as Karna is a Sutaputra. Duryodhan makes friendship with Arjun's compititor & enemy
Karna; by making Karna the King of Angadesh. (Today's Bengal)

Drona's revenge:
Drona asks his pupils to defeat Drupad as his Gurudakshina. Kaurav fail to defeat Drupad. Arjun and Bheema
defeat and bring King Drupad as a prisoner to Drona. Drona take his earlier revenge to insult Drupad and
releases him.

Birth of Drusthadyumna and Druapadi
Enraged Drupad performs a yadnya for the birth of a son who would kill Drona. As a result of this yadnya
Drusthadyumna and Druapadi are born.

Kaurav send Pandav and Kunti to the town of Varanavat. There they stay in Lakshagruha, a house built by
Dhruturashtra & Kaurava. They stay here for over a year. Kauravas set it on fire. Pandav who have been
informed of this by Vidur, escape. In Hastinapur, Pandava and Kunti are taken for dead.

A year in hiding:
Pandav and Kunti go to Ekchakra nagari. Stay there for about a year, with a Brhamin family. Bheema kills
rakshas Bakasur. Pandava and Kunti leave Ekchakra Nagari and live in the forest. Bheema kills rakshas Hidimba.
Bheema has to marry his sister Hidimbaa. Bheema lives with Hidimbaa for over a year. A son Ghatotakach is
born to them. As decided earlier, Bheema leaves Hidimbaa.

Krishna marries Rukmini
Rukmini, the daughter of King Bhishmak of Vidarbha, hears tales of Krishna's courage. She falls in love with
him. Her brother Rukmiya, arranges Rukmini's marriage to his friend, King Shishupal of Chedi.
Rukmini secretly sends a message to Krishna, and together they plan to elope. The day before her marriage to
Shishupal, Rukmini visits the temple of Goddess Ekvira. (This is in Amravati, Maharashtra) Krishna kidnaps
Rukmini here. With help from other Yadav, Krishna defeats Rukmini's brother Rukmiya. King Bhishmak, later
arranges the marriage ceremony.
Including Rukmini, Krishna had 8 wives, called Aashtakanya. They are:
1. Rukmini: daughter of Bhiskmak. She had 8 sons: (including Pradyumna), and a daughter.
2. Satyabhama: daughter of King Satrajeet. She bore seven sons.
3. Suryaa: The daughter of King Surya.
4. Mitra Vrunda: She had three sons.
5. Satya: daughter of King Satyajeet.
6. Lakshmanaa: daughter of King Mandra.
7. Jambuvati: daughter of King Jambuvan. She had a son named Samb.
8. Bhadra: daughter of King Bhadrasen.

Drupadi Swayamvar:
Many kings and princes gather at the Swayamvar. All fail the condition to hit the eye of a moving toy fish. When
Karna is about to try, Draupadi declares that she will not marry a Sutaputra. Pandav are sitting among the
audience, disguised as Brahmins. Arjun is able to hit the target. Enraged kings attack the Pandav. Bheema &
Arjun defeat the kings assembled there.
Pandav marry Draupadi. Declare that they are alive. Pandavas return to Hastinapur with Kunti and Draupadi.
Dhruturashtra divides the kindom. Gives the barren and forest (Khandava Van) lands to the Pandavas.
Duryodhan becomes the crown prince of Hasinapur.

About 20 years at Indraprastha:
Pandava, with help from Krishna burn parts of Khandava Van. Build a new city: Indraprastha. (Today's Delhi).
They start ruling part of Kuru region from Indraprastha.
During this time 5 sons are born to Draupadi: Prativindhya, Sutasom, Shatatik, Shrutakarma and Shrutakirti.
To save a pack of cattle (from wolves?), Arjun has to disturb Dharma & Draupadi to fetch his weapons. As a
result, he goes to exile for 12 years. In the last year, he meets Subhadra (Krishna's sister), and marries her.
Subhadra is Arjun's third wife. Dharma, Nakul & Sahadev married one princess each, after their marriage to
Draupadi. Bheema had married Hidimbaa before Draupadi, and had left Hidimbaa within a year of marriage.

Bheema kills Jarasandh:
Pandav decide to perform the Rajasuya Yadnya. It seems that Jarashandha might create some problems during
this. Krishna has also been harrassed by Jarasandh in the past. Thus Krishna asks Bheema to kill Jarasandha.
Bheema kills Jarasandha in a duet.

Rajsuya Yagya:
Pandav perform the Rajasuya Yadnya. Many kings gather for the Yadnya. Among them one is Shishupal the king
of Chedi. Shishupal is the son of Vasudev's sister, Shrutvata. Shishupal is Krishna's enemy, and Krishna kills him,
during this time.
Among other kings, Kaurav are also present at the Rajasuya Yadnya. They are jealous of Pandav after seeing the
palace and kingdom of Indraprastha. They decide to get Indraprastha.

Dyut and departure for 12 years exile:
Dharama is now about 59 years old. Dharma is invited to play dyut with the Kaurav. Kaurav cheat in the play.
Dharma looses his kingdom. Pandav and Draupadi become slaves of Kaurav. Dushasan drags Draupadi to the
court. Duryodhan & Karna speak badly to this great queen. Nither Bhishma, nor Dhruturashtra, nor Drona
object Duryodhan, Dushasan & Karna.
Enraged Bheema openly takes a vow to kill Dhushasan and Duryodhan for their behaviour. Everyone in the
court is terrified by the Bheema's voice and know that he is capable of fulfilling his vow. Frightened
Dhruturashtra asks for forgiveness for his sons. He asks Draupadi to demand any two wishes. Draupadi asks for
the liberation of herself and her husbands from slavery.
Before leaving Hastinapur, Dharma again plays and looses in Dyut. This time the loosing party goes in exile for
12 years followed by one year of hinding. Pandav and Draupadi leave for the the forest for 12 year exile. Kunti
and Subhadra go to Krishna at Dwarika. Abhimanyu is born to Subharda.

Jayadrath set free:
During the stay in the foreest, Jayadrath tries to kidnap Draupadi. Bheema follows Jayadrath and captures him.
When Bheema is about to kill Jayadrath, Dhrama intervenes and asks him to be left alive as Jayadrath is their
sister Dusheela's husband.

Krishna kills Nakrasur
Krishna and Satyabhama fight a battle against the king Nakrasur. Krishna kills Nakrasur. Nakrasur has captured
many girls, with a view to marry them someday. Krishna releases these girls. They all plead to Krishna, to accept
them as his wives, otherwise they would have to end their livees. (Kashi princess Amba had to commit sucide,
when Bheeshma did not marry her.) Krishna married all these girls.

A Year In Hiding:
At the end of 12 years, Pandav hide their weapons on a Shami tree and enter Matsyadesh. Here Dharma (Kanka)
become a minister to the king Virat. Bheema (Ballav) becomes the chef. Arjun becomes a dance teacher to the
princess Uttaraa. Nakul and Sahadev take care of the horses. Draupadi (Sairandhri) becomes the maid of queen

Bheema kills Keechak:
Sudeshana's brother Keechak tries to kidnap Draupadi. This time Bheema does not inform any of his brothers.
Bheema kills Keechak. 105 brothers of Keechak (Anu-Keechak), try to burn Draupadi with the body of Keechak. Bheema kills 105 Anu-Keechak at the middle of the night.

Marriage of Uttara & Abhimanyu:
After the end of one year hiding, Pandav and Draupadi declare their identity. The king Virat, is ashamed of the
fact that these great people worked for him. He asks Arjun to marry his daughter Uttaraa. Arjun, who looks
upon his disciple as a daughter, accepts her as his daughter-in-law. Marraige of Uttaraa and Abhimanyu.

Sri-Krishna Shishtayi:
Krishna goes to Kauravas to ask back for Indraprastha. Kauravas decline. Krishna asks for 5 towns. Duryodhan
replies he would not give even a small piece of land to Pandavas. Talks continue for about 10 days. Krishna is
unable to bring peace arrangements between Kaurav & Pandav. War is inevitable.

The War:
On the new moon of Margashirsha, armies of Pandav & Kaurav reach Kurukshetra. Pandav get 7 Akshouhini
army. Kaurav get 11 Akshouhini army. The armies spend 10 days in preparing for the war, setting up camps and
drills. At this time, Bheeshma is about 120 years old. Dharama is about 70 years old.

Day 1:
Arjun is overwhelmed by the fact that he is going to fight with his near and dear ones. Krishna tells him Geeta
the philosophical dialogue that reminds Arjun of his work. This takes about 3 hours, after which war

Day 10:
Arjun strikes showers of arrows, from behind Shikhandi on Bhishma. Fall of Bhishma.

Day 13:
Jayadrath, Karna and many Kaurav kill Abhimanyu.

Day 14:
Arjun kills Jayadrath.

Day 15:
Dharma tells Drona, that Ashwathama (an elephant) is dead. Drona thinks its his son, drops his weapons and
sits down. Arjun kills Drona.

Day 17:
Arjun kills Karna. Bheema kills Dushasan.

Day 18:
Bheema kills Duryodhana.

Night of day 18:
Pandav & Krishna are away from the camp. Krupacharya, Krutavarma & Ashwathama attack the Pandav cam
at night. Ashwathama kills 5 Pandav sons, 4 Drupad sons and Drupad's grandsons. When Pandav & Krishna
return to the camp, Bheema & Krishna follow Ashwathama. Krishna punishes Ashwathama.

The cost of the war

The 18 day war leaves Pandav victorious. On the Pandav side: 5 Pandava, Krishna & Satyaki remain alive. And
on Kaurav side: Krutavarma, Krupa and Ashwathama are the only living people. 100 Kaurava, Karna, Drona,
Drupad, his 4 sons including: Shikhandi and Drushtadymna, all 7 Pandava sons including Ghatoakach and Abhimanyu are killed. Bheeshma dies about 3 months later.

Dharma Rajya:
Dharma becomes the king of Hastinapur. Abhimanyu's son Parikshit becomes the crown prince.
After a few years, Kunti, Dhruturashtra and Gandhari accept vaanprasthashram. All three die in a forest fire, few
years later.

Krishna is sleeping in a garden, when a hunter mistakenly hits Krishna. This becomes the reason for Krishna's
death. His 8 main wives (Ashtakanya) commit sati. Balaram dies soon after Krishna.
In the following couple of months, the Yadavas fight amongst themselves. In this fight, nearly all major figures
of the Yadava dynasty are killed. Another major incedent: Dwarika submerges under sea.
Krishna's grandson Ushneek (son of Samb) moves to Kashyapur, (near Multan, Pakistan) to his maternal uncle,
and rules the Multan area. (His desendants ruled until Nabi Mohammed defeated Devendra the last king in early 7
Devendra's son Asvapati was forced to Islam. Another son Gajpati came to Surat and established a small kingdom there.)
Arjun fetches the Yadava widows and Krishna's grandson Aniruddha (son of Pradyumna) to Hastinapur. On the
way he is attacked by tribals. Arjun and Aniruddha are unable to save the women folk. A dejected Arjun returns
to Hastinapur.
Pandav decide to retire. Parikshit (Arjun's grandson, son of Abhimanyu) is crowned as the king of Hastinapur.
Aniruddha is crowned as the king of Indraprastha. Pandav are now free.
Pandav and Draupadi leave for the Himalayas. Dharma is about 100 years old.

Mahabharat written:
Sage Vyas has been noting down all the minute details of the War. He starts writing Mahabharat. (Probably the
technique of writing was newly invented. Very few sages could read & write.) Vyas requested Sri Ganesh to write
Mahabharat. Ganesh agreed on the condition that, Vyas will dictate without stopping. Vyas agreed, and
whenever he needed some time to think, he gave a puzzle for Ganesh to solve. As Ganesh could not write, until
the puzzle was solved, Vyas gained time.

After 3 years the compilation was complete. The details of Mahabharat are written in about 100,000 shloka.
King Parikshit performs a yadnya. Vyas recites the Mahabharat to the kings and people gathered there.

Sarpa Satra:
Parikshit is killed by a naga Takshak. Angered his son Janmejaya starts killing all Naga people. Sage Astik stops
this holocaust. Naga people start calling themselves Astek after their saviour.
Decendants of Pandava continue to rule the Kuru region for another 1200 years. The aftermath of the great war
was so mammoth that for a few centuries to come, history stood still. In this long stretch of time, there was no
major event to be noted by the historians. This phase of history was stagnant until the rise of Gautam Budhha
and Mahavir Jain.

golden words

The Mahabharata is the longest and, arguably, one of the greatest epic poems in any
-Columbia University

W hat is found in this epic may be elsewhere;
W hat is not in this epic is nowhere else.
-The Mahabharata, condensed from Sanskrit and translated into English by P. Lal.

No matter what conditions you encounter in life, your right is only to the works--not to the fruits
thereof. You should not be impelled to act for selfish reasons, nor should you be attached to
-Bhagavad Gita 2.47

Whenever virtue declines and unrighteousness rises, I manifest Myself as an embodied being.
To protect the Saints and Sages, to destroy the evil-doers and to establish Dharma
(righteousness), I am born from age to age.
-Bhagavad Gita 4.7 and 4.8

Seeing Your great form with many faces, many eyes, many arms, many thighs and feet, and
many terrible tusks and stomachs, O Mighty Armed, the worlds are terrified and so am I.
-Bhagavad Gita 11.23

I am pleased to see this universal form which was never seen by me before, and at the same
time my mind is terrified with fear. Therefore, please reveal to me Your previous form. O God
of Gods, O Refuge of the Universe, be gracious to me.
-Bhagavad Gita 11.45

To those who are constantly devoted and worship Me with love, I give the understanding by
which they can come to Me.
-Bhagavad Gita 10.10

Out of Compassion for them, I, dwelling in their hearts, destroy with the shining lamp of
knowledge the darkness born of ignorance.
-Bhagavad Gita 10.11

Having seen this terrible form of Mine do not be afraid or bewildered. Rid of fear, with a
cheeful heart, now behold again My previous form.

-Bhagavad Gita 11.49

Arjun said: O Janardana, having behld Your human form, I am now free of fear, my mind is composed, I have resumed by normal awareness.
-Bhagavad Gita 11.51

Picking up his conch, the golden Devadatta, Arjun blew on it fiercely; the heavens echoed with
the noise, and the chariot warriors stood petrified on the field. Their horses stood paralysed,
with eyes wide open ...
-Mahabharata, Book Seven: Drona (P. Lal)

O Countless formed Divinity, You are the First of the Gods, the Supreme Being, the Ancient
Self, and You are the resting place of the world. You are the knower, the knowable, and the
Supreme Abode of Lord Vishnu. This entire world is pervaded by You.
-Bhagavad Gita 11.38

O God of Incomparable Power, You are the Father of this creation consisting of movables and
immovables. You are the Adorable One, The Preceptor, and the Glorius One. There is no
equal to You in the three worlds, much less can any one excel You.
-Bhagavad Gita 11.43

Krishna said,"Do you duty, Arjun, as your nature dictates. All work fetters, as all fire gives
smoke. Only selfless duty saves. Fix your mind on me. Surrender all deeds to me. All
problems will be solved by my grace. Pride will lead only to your moral ruin. If, filled with pride,
you say, 'I will not fight,' it is all in vain. You are foolish. Fight you will, your nature will make
you fight. Your karma will make you fight. You will fight in spite of yourself."
-Mahabharata, Book Six: Bhishma (P. Lal)

The Blessed Lord said: You are grieving over those who are not fit to be grieved for, yet you
speak words like a great man of wisdom. But the wise do not grieve neither over the living nor
over the dead. Never did I not exist, nor did you nor these kings. Nor shall we ever cease to
exist in the future.
-Bhagavad Gita 2.11 and 2.12

Krishna drove the white-horsed chariot to where Bhishma stood, shining like the sun.
Obscured by an arrowy shower from Bhishma, Arjun's chariot was hidden from view, but
Krishna, with great skill and patience, drove the wounded horsed through. With his cloud-
booming Gandiva bow, Arjun shot Bhishma's bow out of his hands.
-Mahabharata, Book Six: Bhishma(P. Lal)

Urged on by Krishna, Arjun displayed his full prowess. He seemed like the Destroyer himself
at the end of creation. Many heroes, hoping to win glory and with death as their goal, came
befoe Arjun as he let loose his shafts. They fell by the thousands. Arjun carved a parth
through the Kauravas.
-Mahabharata, Book Six: Bhishma(Krishna Dharma)

Krishna drove the horses forward and the fine chariot moved into the center of the field.
Krishna smiled. "Just behold, O Arjun, all the Kurus assembled here." Arjun looked across the
field. Krishna could understnad Arjun's mind. The long-awaited time for war had arrived--a
terrible fratricidal war. There was now no turning back. Suddenly seeing the horror of it before
him, Arjun gazed at his relatives and friends arrayed across from him--med who were like
fathers, brothers, sons, and grandsons, as well as teachers, uncles, friends, in-laws, and well-
-Mahabharata, Book Six: Bhishma(Krishna Dharma)

Life without Krishna has no joy for me. Tell me what is good for me. I am a wanderer with a
hollow heart.
-Mahabharata, Book Sixteen: The Battle W ith Clubs

Arjun chose Krishna, though Krishna had vowed to lay down his arms on the battlefield ...
... Krishna asked: "W hy did you pick me, knowing I would not fight?"
"I can handle the soldiers myself, O Krishna, if I have your presence to give me moral support.
Some of your glory will surely rub off on me."
-Mahabharata, Book Five: W ar Preparations(P.Lal)

Monday, August 31, 2009



In the Ramayan, Ravan lies mortally wounded on the battlefield and the monkeys are celebrating their victory, when Ram turns to his brother , Lakshman, and says, “While Ravan was a brute, he was also a great scholar. Go to him quickly and request him to share whatever knowledge he can.”

The obedient Lakshman rushes to Ravan’s side and whispers in his ears, “Demonking , all your life you have taken not given. Now the noble Ram gives you an opportunity to mend your ways. Share your vast wisdom. Do not let it die with you. For that you will be surely be blessed.”

Ravan responds by simply turning away. An angry Lakshman goes back to Ram and says: “He is as arrogant as he always was, too proud to share anything.” Ram looks at his brother and asks him softly, “Where did you stand while asking him for knowledge?” “Next to his head so that I hear what he had to say clearly.” Ram smiles, places his bow on the ground and walks to where Ravan lies. Lakshman watches in astonishment as his brother kneels at Ravan’s feet.

With palms joined, with extreme humility, Ram says, “Lord of Lanka, you abducted my wife, a terrible crime for which I have been forced to punish you. Now, you are no more my enemy. I see you now as you are known across the world, as the wise son of Rishi Vishrava. I bow to you and request you to share your wisdom with me. Please do that for if you die without doing so, all your wisdom will be lost forever to the world.”

To Lakshman’s surprise, Ravan opens his eyes and raises his arms to salute Ram, “If only I had more time as your teacher than as your enemy. Standing at my feet as a student should, unlike your rude younger brother, you are a worthy recipient of my knowledge. I have very little time so I cannot share much but let me tell you one important lesson I have learnt in my life. Things that are bad for you seduce you easily; you run towards them impatiently. But things are actually good for you fail to attract you; you shun them creatively, finding powerful excuses to justify your procrastination . That is why I was impatient to abduct Sita but avoided meeting you. This is the wisdom of my life, Ram. My last words. I give it to you.” With these words, Ravan dies.



Bhishma’s last words

Bhishma heard him and opened his eyes with some effort. How courageously and serenely the grandsire greeted his own death showed the greatness of Bhishma. He his right arm which was once powerful enough to bring any enemy that faced him. This time, it was to greet all those who came for his cremation. He, then, addressed Dhritarashtra and said. “Good that you have come in time. You are well versed in all the four Vedas. Do not grieve. The sons of Pandu are yours also. They will do as you order them.”

The son of Santanu, then, turned to Krishna and spoke thus. “Krishna, I bow to you. I had repeatedly advised Duryodhana to make peace with the Pandavas, reminding him that the victory shall be where you are. But, being foolish, he did not listen to my words. I have done my duty and now I ask your permission for departing from this world”.

He spoke the final words addressing all present. “I ask for the permission from all of you to breathe my last. You all must remember that truthfulness is the greatest strength. Hence, try to live holding fast to truth”.

SOURCE - http://arshajnanam.blogspot.com/2008/05/bhishma-ascends-to-heaven.html

Duryodhan at Dvaipayan

By Jatindra Mohan Bagchi
Transcreated by Pradip Bhattacharya

In the far horizon streaks of blood
merge into the black gloom;
Below, on the darkling solitary plain
whose form sprawls, alone?

--Know you not who I am? That name have I not
forgotten-- king am I-- Raja Duryodhan!
Kurukshetra, is it over?--
Where am I-- is this Dvaipayan?
O Queen, queen Bhanumati--
where are you, my wife, in calamity?
--Chariot; my chariot,-- driver, charioteer--
Where, where are the guards gone?
Oh! the pain-- torment agonising--
who calls the royal surgeon?
Royal valour, hero's fortitude--
will even they give way today?
--Yet, yet I do not fear,
alone will I fight undeterred;
Yet, in unfair battle defeat
I spurn!--
Alas, my fate! even that I cannot,
shattered these thighs in dust lie;
Refuge-less my valour only
cries out its impotence!
Vrikodara, wolf-waisted, Pandavas' shame,
you blackened Pandu's face--
like a thief in the night
dharma you burnt,
firing it with your own hands;
Un-Kshatriya in Kshatriya clan--
proof aright of Wind-god's son--
On that tarnished Pandava name
of yours shame, shame,--
a thousand shames.
Did none have eyes in this world?
Alas, who is left in this wide world?
Bhishma, Drona, Karna gone--
Who will punish whom?
All, that deceiving Krishna's work,
cruel intriguer's evil counsel--
"Dharma-rajya", righteous rule,
confusing words ever on his lips.
With Krishna a band of rogues
call him "friend", serve as slaves.
That shame of Yadava clan
manipulates them, smiling.
Where's Balarama, generous, valorous,
radiant-white Raivatak?
And where the clan's shame, his brother,
partisan and cheat!
Oh-- that pain, again, again!
Who's there?

Come near, O Sanjaya,
See your invincible Duryodhan's
calamitous condition!
Kuru clan-is it uprooted then--
Kurukshetra-- is it annihilation?
Speak, Counsellor, why silent?
What is left to realise!
--You muse, to Duryodhan you won't
relate that inauspicious news,--
Alas! at death's throes now
has that any worth?
Today I recall in that assembly hall
Uncle's folded hands-
Had then I known of today,
Would've I berated him so bitterly?
Yet, considering royalty's honour,
I repent not--
Who among his enemies is unaware
of Duryodhan's sense of honour?
His morals, his acts, all,
all befit the King of kings--
The noble were honoured, genius welcomed,
bounty seeker returned with wealth.
Oh! That incident?
Kshatriyas' right to gamble's well known--
Who calls it sin? No tearful remorse
touches these eyes!
If violence you regard a crime,
you're a coward;-- proof of it:
Perpetual strife of god and titan
though brothers-
What say you to that?
Violence's natural to creatures,
violence--bred food nurtures life--
Time's desire mirrored in violence
is figured forth in the dynasty.
Panchali? Mention not, Counsellor!
Who marries five husbands,
as bride-price wins perpetual right
to mockery as fate's boon!
King's duties are grave, profound,
Desires, wishes, aren't for him,
All life a one-pointed dedication,
you well know, O Sanjaya.
Kunti's sons, Draupadi's husbands-
too harshly treated?
Kuru patriarch, in his kingdom,
is impartial, adamantine!
Needlepoint's land I refused
Pandavas? Because I was miserly?
Duryodhan's munificent hand
who knows not on this earth?
It's not that, Counsellor,--
Justice's just an excuse
of enemies to demand rights!
Were it a prayer? Gifting kingdom away
the forest would receive Duryodhan.
Only one thing I cannot forget,
Counsellor, which even today
pierces my heart,--
Abhimanyu's heinous murder
by seven chariot-heroes!

--Oh, that agony! Shooting up
from thigh to skull
blacks all out!
Blind eyes, frenzied mind,
doomsday roar drumming in ears!
No physician left? Send messages
summon, call them-
this necklace as prize.
Dusk deepens in skies o'erhead
at plain's end forest-skirted,
after lake waters grow black
in deepening darkness!
Hundreds of will-o'-wisp eyes light up
thronging Kurukshetra-plain;
Ravening carnivores roam roaring!
Sanjaya, stay awhile,
perhaps my last night this!
Defeat, victory-- not the issue,
they're life's partners I know.
Regrets have I none in this life,
by nature King is this Duryodhan;
above blame and fame
his all-ruling throne!
Only, a hundred pranams convey
at my father's feet, Counsellor,--
tell him-- I am that great father's
renowned dynast.
Death I own proudly, easily,
my constant servitor,--
Life he steals,
steal he cannot fame
that is eternal.
What if father's eyes are blind-
what can't fate do?
Love for his son--I know,
is limitless. Yet not blind.
Desiring progeny's welfare
shackling in chains of state-rule
in war he could've been party
following conventional advice;
--Of counsellors there was no shortage,
--Krishna, Vidura, heroic Bhishma,--
Yet with faith in his son
that head high-held bowed in respect.
--Better than cowardly peace
is even war eternal,--
In paternal love that kingly ethic
never forgot, that ruler of men.
--For proud son's befitting father he,
supernal radiance in mind's eyes;--
At his feet, hence, again and again
I bow today with body and soul.
Night deepens,--farewell, friend,
return home with pranam;
May Duryodhan's glorious fame
live, constant companion!
As nearby Dvaipayan ripples,
hallowed by Vyasa's holy name;--
may Kshatriya valour's radiant star
shine in the gloom-- Duryodhan.